A property called self-similarity. The term was coined by Benoît Mandelbrot in 1975 and was derived from the Latin fractus meaning “broken” or “fractured.” A mathematical fractal is based on an equation that undergoes iteration, a form of feedback based on recursion
Approximate fractals are easily found in nature. These objects display self-similar structure over an extended, but finite, scale range. Examples include clouds, snow flakes, crystals, mountain ranges, lightning, river networks, cauliflower or broccoli, and systems of blood vessels and pulmonary vessels. .
Ice crystals growing on the ceiling of the underground garage, Antarctica, 2005
Here is explained why Fibonacci numbers and the related number
ϕ are employed in nature. Their occurrence is not random or arbitrary. It is so because it must be so.
The sunflower, shown on the right, is a perfect example of the Fibonacci sequence and the corresponding “golden ratio” appearing in nature.
Leaf Edges Sunlit
The little sea urchin on top is quite unusual. It was discovered by a research vessel near New Caledonia at a depth of 1000 ft.
Fractal virus and bacterial colonies: